Application of natural antioxidants for the formulation of functional meat products
1Department of Food Technology, School of Interdisciplinary Sciences and Technology (SIST), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.
2Department of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.
3*Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Hail, Saudi Arabia
Received 16 November 2021, Revised 19 November 2021, Accepted 10 December 2021, Published online 30 December 2021
Natural antioxidant, Food technology, Plant extracts, Meat Products
There is growing interest in finding healthier meals that offer more than just nutritional benefits. Meat and meat products are consumed all over the world, so it is possible to use them as matrices to make sure that people get enough bioactive components from their food. Besides extending the meat product’s shelf-life and improving its composition (by integrating antioxidant molecules), it could also help people stay healthy by lowering lipid oxidative products. In this review, we look at whether developing and eating functional meat products is a viable method for improving meat composition and stability and reducing the oxidative consequences associated with the consumption of meat intake. The inclusion of plant bioactive compounds and antioxidants in meat products should protect the composition and quality of functional meat and meat products as well as the customers’ health status. The key plant components with antioxidant capabilities employed in the composition of functional meat products will be discussed in this review.
*Corresponding author at: Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Hail, Hail-2440, Saudi Arabia
IntroductionRecent developments in meat products, changes in customer needs for nutrition, health, well-being, and natural goods. In meat industry is being compelled to manufacture high-quality, safe meat products. As a result, novel techniques for meat production, preparation, storage, and distribution may alter the qualitative and quantitative composition of meat products and maximize their positive aspects for human health. Meat and meat products are perishable items that need additives to avoid deterioration and assure the absence of pathogenic bacteria and foodborne pathogens.1-3 As a result of these processes, the nutritional content and sensory quality of meat products are diminished. Meat products lose nutritional value and sensory quality as a result of these processes. The changes that occur during oxidation may affect customer acceptability (color and texture changes, as well as the appearance of rancid odor and taste) or even the product’s safety (harmful compounds).4 In this case, antioxidants are added to help delay or stop these adverse effects.5 Toxicological concerns have led to a search for new sources of antioxidants and antimicrobials. So, more and more people want to use plant extracts because they are thought to be safe and are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS).6 Natural extracts should be used to prepare meat to preserve it from external influences and lengthen its shelf life.
Summary of the LiteratureNatural and synthetic antioxidants are used to inhibit the development of oxidative reactions.7 Antioxidants comprise the free radicals scavengers, metal chelators, and intrinsic antioxidants that are hindering the off odor in meat and meat products.8,9 Lipid oxidation is a non-microbial factor, occurs in high fatty food such as milk, meat, etc.10 deteriorates various quality parameters due to the formation of hydroxyl acids that altered the flavor, aroma could change by the formation of new volatile odorous compounds. The color changed due to the reaction between oxidation products of protein and lipid for the development of dark-colored meat.11 During meat processing, the reaction between unsaturated fatty acids and cytosolic pro-oxidants increased lipid oxidation. Meat has several endogenous pro-oxidants and antioxidants that play a vital role in the potential of lipid oxidation in meat. Stored meat, formed ferryl- myoglobin (activated metmyoglobin or H2O2 activated metmyoglobin), is the main factor of lipid oxidation in meat. Lipid oxidation in meat starts immediately after slaughter as after which there are various biochemical reactions involved in the conversion of muscle to the meat that leads to a decrease in antioxidative capacity.9 Natural antioxidant substances can be extracted from natural sources such as plants or animals. These are usually phenolic compounds that have good antioxidant potential and generally comprise tocopherols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. α- tocopherol, the vital antioxidant, has a lower antioxidant capacity in edible oils than other tocopherols.12 Natural antioxidants occur in various leafy vegetables and seeds, such as vitamin E, ascorbic acid, and phenolic compounds, that can minimize the oxidative damage connected with lots of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, cataracts, arthritis, diabetes, aging, cancer, and immune deficiency.13 In recent years, the use of natural antioxidants in meat and meat products has skyrocketed. Different pure natural compounds and crude extracts have antioxidant properties that are used for retardation of lipid oxidation and deterioration of food (Table 1).14 Phenolic compounds possess antioxidant properties found in the Plant kingdom, including α-tocopherol (vitamin E), an efficient naturally occurring liposoluble antioxidant.15 Numerous studies show consumers are using α-tocopherol, a lipid-soluble chain-breaking antioxidant, and customer-friendly.16 Polyphenols contain aromatic organic compounds with at least a single hydroxyl group attached directly to a benzene ring. They consist of flavonoids, flavones, flavanols, polymeric phenolic substances, tannins, coumarins, and phenolic compounds with fused benzene and pyrone groups.17,18 However, fenugreek protects lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidants, whereas the extraction of fenugreek seeds has the potential of reducing power, antioxidant/radical scavenging, and chelating activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity).19 Total phenolic is the aromatic secondary plant metabolites that play a major role in food color, nutritional, antioxidant and sensory properties.20 Whereas the presence of hydroxyl group in a phenolic compound is a vital plant constituent that mostly contributes to free-radical scavenging ability. Various authors reported leaves and fruit had possessed the great source of an antioxidant substance such as seed, juice, and pericarp, free radicals like Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS), hydroxyl radicals (OH), superoxide (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Nitric Oxide (N2O). These are proficiently quenched from juice and aqueous extract of leaves and their effect is superior to the fruit extracts even juice can suppress the production of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vivo and in vitro in rats effectively reduce the LDL level.21,22
|No.||Developed Product condition||Effect on meat products quality|
|1||Apple peel and kinnow (citrus fruit) rind Functional ingredients: antioxidants; Developed products: Formulated Buffalo meat fillets; Storage time: Under aerobic conditions for 21 days in the refrigerator.||As compared to the control, the antioxidant-treated products considerably slowed in the oxidation process. The color value redness and yellowness showed a significant declining trend, but drop being more prominent in a control sample. Apple peel and kinnow rind powders increase storage life, as well as maintain the sensory quality at a refrigerated temperature under aerobic conditions.36|
|2||Moringa flower (MF) extract Functional ingredients: antioxidants; Developed products: Chicken nuggets; Storage time: Storage at 4°C for up to 20 days||MF extract, improve nutritional quality, and reduce lipid oxidation in cooked chicken nuggets.34|
|3||Dragon fruit peel (DFP) powder at different concentrations (1.5% and 3.0%) Functional ingredients: antioxidants; Developed products: Chicken nuggets; Storage time: 20 days of refrigerated storage||DFP rich chicken nuggets improve nutritional quality without affecting the quality and organoleptic acceptability of products up to 20days.37|
|4||Amla fruit (AF) and curry leaf (CL) extracts Functional ingredients: antioxidants; Developed products: Goat meat nuggets; Storage time: Refrigeration storage||The total flavonoid content of the CL extract was greater, whereas the total phenolic content of the AF extract was greater. Antioxidants increased the texture and sensory qualities of the AF and CL nuggets and reduced oxidation during refrigerated storage. Natural AF and CL extracts may be employed instead of the artificial BHT in goat meat nuggets to boost the antioxidant capacity.38|
|5||Guarana seed extracts (GSE) Functional ingredients: antioxidants; Developed products: Pork patties; Storage time: 2 ± 1 0C for 18 days||During storage of dosages of GSE (GSL) were able to sustain the color values. GSE incorporated samples had fewer TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and carbonyls than control and BHT samples. Sample with GSL and GSM had better antioxidants as compared to synthetic antioxidants (0.08 and 0.07 mg MDA/kg). The result shows GSE is very efficient in preventing color degradation, lipid and protein oxidation. It has the potential to be a natural antioxidant in pork patties.39|
|6||Corn bran (CB), dried apple pomace (DAP), and dried tomato pomace (DTP) at different levels (3%, 6%, and 9 % levels) Functional ingredients: antioxidants; Developed products: Chicken sausages; Storage time: 4°C storage up to 20 days||Fiber-enriched chicken sausages containing 3% corn bran, 6 % dried apple pomace and 6 % dried tomato pomace were microbiologically safe and organoleptically acceptable up to the 15th day.27|
ConclusionNatural antioxidants derived from plants, boost the antioxidant capacity of meat and meat products, also preventing or delaying the development of reactive species and oxidation products, thereby increasing the shelf life and quality of products. Promising findings from various research indicate that natural antioxidants derived from plants may be utilized to increase the shelf life of meat products, providing consumers with food that includes only natural additives. Their usage enhanced nutritional quality decreased lipid oxidation and boosted the stability of meat products during their shelf life while keeping or improving sensory characteristics. Additionally, new functional meat products would be created to make use of the inherent antioxidant advantages for human health. Given the beneficial benefits of antioxidants on human health, the health implications of meat products reformed with natural antioxidants should be researched as well.
Conflicts of InterestThe author declares that there are no conflicts of interest relevant to this article.
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Cite this article
Kausar T, Azad Z, Anwar S, Shahid S, Kausar M. Application of natural antioxidants for the formulation of functional meat products. NeuroPharmac J. 2021; 6(3): 269-276. DOI: 10.37881/1.636
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